Backgammon Spielaufbau

Backgammon Spielaufbau Backgammon: Tipps

Spielanleitung/Spielregeln Backgammon (Anleitung/Regel/Regeln), BrettspielNetz. Wie funktioniert das Backgammon Spiel für Anfänger und Fortgeschrittene? ✅ Backgammon Aufstellung, Aufbau und Spielregeln ✅ Backgammon Regeln als. Spielregeln. Bevor man mit dem Backgammon spielen anfängt, sollte man sich diese Seite gut durchlesen. Es folgen eine kurze Beschreibung vom Spielaufbau​. Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus Strategie- und Glücksspiel. Dabei gewinnt jener Spieler, der als. Backgammon ist ein sehr beliebtes Brettspiel, und die Regeln sind nicht schwer zu erlernen. Mit unserer Spieleanleitung werden Sie zwar nicht.

Backgammon Spielaufbau

Spielanleitung Backgammon. Seite 1 von 5. Spielaufbau. Das Spielbrett besteht aus 24 Dreiecken, „Points“ oder „Zungen“ genannt, von denen sich jeweils Backgammon ist ein sehr beliebtes Brettspiel, und die Regeln sind nicht schwer zu erlernen. Mit unserer Spieleanleitung werden Sie zwar nicht. Das ist es, was Backgammon zu einem Spiel der geistigen Geschicklichkeit macht. Spielaufbau Das Spielbrett besteht aus 24 Dreiecken, Points oder Zungen.

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Are you sure you want to concede the game? Yes No. Disconnected You've been disconnected due to inactivity. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and create a lively atmosphere.

Portes: Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.

Plakoto : A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point. Asodio: Also known as Acey-deucey , where all checkers are off the board, and players enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey.

These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points. Players use the same pair of dice in turns. After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first.

There is no doubling cube. Over time it was replaced by other games such as xiangqi Chinese chess. In Japan, ban-sugoroku is thought to have been brought from China in the 6th century, and is mentioned in Genji monogatari.

As a gambling game, it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Go , originally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.

In Korea, it is called Ssang-ryuk or Jeopo. The jeux de tables 'Games of Tables' , predecessors of modern backgammon, first appeared in France during the 11th century and became a favorite pastime of gamblers.

In , Louis IX issued a decree prohibiting his court officials and subjects from playing. In Spain , the Alfonso X manuscript Libro de los juegos , completed in , describes rules for a number of dice and table games in addition to its extensive discussion of chess.

A wooden board and checkers were recovered from the wreck of the Vasa among the belongings of the ship's officers.

Some surviving artworks are Cardsharps by Caravaggio the backgammon board is in the lower left and The Triumph of Death by Pieter Bruegel the Elder the backgammon board is in the lower right.

In the 16th century, Elizabethan laws and church regulations prohibited playing tables, but by the 18th century, backgammon was popular among the English clergy.

In English, the word "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English : gamen , meaning 'game' or 'play'.

The earliest use documented by the Oxford English Dictionary was in The most recent major development in backgammon was the addition of the doubling cube.

The popularity of backgammon surged in the mids, in part due to the charisma of Prince Alexis Obolensky who became known as "The Father of Modern Backgammon".

He also established the World Backgammon Club of Manhattan, devised a backgammon tournament system in , then organized the first major international backgammon tournament in March , which attracted royalty, celebrities and the press.

Cigarette, liquor and car companies began to sponsor tournaments, and Hugh Hefner held backgammon parties at the Playboy Mansion.

Board and committee members include many of the top players, tournament directors and writers in the worldwide backgammon community. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

One of the oldest board games for two players. For the film, see Backgammon film. For the jazz album, see Backgammon album.

A backgammon set, consisting of a board, two sets of 15 checkers, two pairs of dice, a doubling cube, and dice cups.

Play media. Main article: Tables board game. This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, the picture is incorrect because it does not take into account that when rolling doubles, a given distance may be traveled using the rolled number 3 or 4 times.

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See also: List of World Backgammon champions. See also: Nard game. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. New Series 1 9 : — Hacker Art Books.

Backgammon For Dummies. Backgammon to Win. Lulu Com. Backgammon Galore!. Rules of play describe a particular variation of backgammon and on this there is no disagreement among international tournaments.

In fact, tournament rules sets do not usually specify these rules but might instead refer, as in the US Rules, to the 'commonly accepted rules of backgammon.

Gaming Guide - Gambling in Europe. Backgammon for Winners Third ed. To start the game, each player throws a single die. This determines both the player to go first and the numbers to be played.

Retrieved Backgammon for Serious Players Second ed. Archived from the original on Artificial Intelligence.

Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 13 September Archived from the original on 13 March The three games together are called 'Tavli' and are usually played one after the other in matches of three, five, or seven points US Backgammon Federation.

Operations Research. Backgammon for Dummies. An exposure of the arts and miseries of gambling. Backgammon Times.

The Guardian. The Daily Telegraph Australia. June 24, The Independent London. The Washington Post. Mind Sports Worldwide. Archived from the original on 7 September PR Newswire.

July 10, Nintendo Life. Backgammon Galore! Retrieved 6 March Communications of the ACM. Archived from the original on 25 February Payvand News.

December 4, Meri, Josef W. Carson-Dellosa Publishing. The Journal of Hellenic Studies. February Vyzantinon Vios kai Politismos.

October The backgammon book. Viking Pr, March New Series 4 7 : — Daily Sabah. Retrieved 1 February Archived from the original on 13 August Nihon Kiin.

Archived from the original on 14 November The Art Bulletin. Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte. The University of Texas at Austin.

The New York Times. January 13, A disk and dice game that has been played in Middle Eastern streets for thousands of years, in English homes for hundreds of years, and on Bronx stoops for dozens of years has suddenly gripped the bankers and brokers of old-line men's clubs all over town.

Listen to this article 5. This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits. Audio help More spoken articles.

Tables games. Ludus duodecim scriptorum Tabula Jacquet. Backgammon Tables Players. Namespaces Article Talk.

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Wikimedia Commons Wikibooks. Diese Dreiecke werden Zungen oder Points genannt und sind hälftig auf beiden Seiten aufgeteilt. Jeweils links und rechts gibt es in der Mitte der Points eine sogenannte Bar, die wiederum das Outer-Board auf der einen Seite, von dem Home-Board auf der anderen Seite abgrenzt.

Wichtig ist jedoch, dass es sich hierbei um keine feste Regelung handelt. Ihr könnt sowohl in den Farben variieren, als auch die Anordnung, wo das Heimfeld liegt, oder wie die Zugrichtung aussieht.

Auch ein sechsseitiger Würfel ist von Nöten. Doch wie gewinnt man eigentlich? Genau das möchten wir euch im nachfolgenden Abschnitt ein wenig näher bringen, indem wir euch mehr über den Beginn des Spiels und den Verlauf von Backgammon erzählen.

Jeder Spieler verwendet für seinen ersten Wurf des Brettspiels nur einen Würfel. Vorgerückt wird nun um die Zahl auf dem Würfel und als schönes Extra auch um jene Augenzahl des Gegnerwurfes.

Wichtig hierbei ist jedoch, dass ihr nicht einfach beispielsweise 4 und 6 zusammenrechnet und dann 10 setzt, sondern die Würfel einzeln bedient.

Das bedeutet, dass ihr theoretisch unterschiedliche Steine ziehen könnt, einmal 4 und einmal 6. Es ist jedoch auch erlaubt, nur einen Stein zu setzen.

Auch die Reihenfolge der beiden Würfe ist nicht von Bedeutung und kann von euch entschieden werden. Jetzt wisst ihr zwar, wie viele Steine ihr setzen dürft und auch wann … doch wohin müsst ihr denn mit den guten Dingern?

Wie wir bereits wissen, ist es euer Ziel, die Steine ins Heimfeld zurückzubringen. Ihr könnt dabei einen Stein nicht auf Felder setzen, die schon zwei oder mehreren Steinen des Gegners eine Obhut bieten.

Es kommt natürlich auch immer darauf an, dass euer Zug zulässig ist und das ist nicht je nach Wurf leider nicht immer möglich.

Könnt ihr nicht beide Ziffern ziehen, weil euch die Möglichkeiten fehlen, so müsst ihr zwangsweise einen auslassen.

Backgammon Spielaufbau Backgammon: Die Regeln

Der erste Stein zieht die Augen beider Würfel. Die folgende Rechnung rechnet diese Position auf die Anzahl Lottospiele 36 möglichen Würfelkombinationen hoch. Die Position im Rennspiel wird anhand der Augen des Würfels bestimmt, die jeder der beiden Spieler benötigt, alle seine Spielsteine ins Backgammon Spielaufbau zu ziehen. Würfelt er aber eine 4 und eine 2, darf er keinen Stein Mobile Porn Hub Feld 3 entfernen, sondern muss einen seiner Steine von Feld 5 auf Feld 1 bewegen und dann für die 2 noch einen von Feld 5 auf Feld 3 oder von Feld 3 auf Feld 1. Die Punkte 7, 5 und 4 sind, wie bereits gesagt, die wichtigsten Punkte, die zu machen im frühen Spiel in der Absicht angestrebt wird, in Verbindung mit den bereits bestehenden Punkten 6 und 8 eine Blockade Play Stor Spiele die hinteren Steine des Gegners zu errichten. Duell der Ratten von Seiji Kanai Highlands, im Folglich wird er sein Innenfeld öffnen müssen, um Schwarz einspielen zu lassen.

Backgammon Spielaufbau Video

The five basic strategies of backgammon Backgammon Spielaufbau

Backgammon Spielaufbau - Navigationsmenü

Steine auf das Spielfeld aufgestellt, angeordnet und die Spieler sind bereit das Spiel zu beginnen würfelt jeder Spieler einen Würfel, der Spieler mit der höheren Augenzahl beginnt zu spielen. Jeder Spieler muss alle seine gewürfelten Züge ziehen, wenn dies möglich ist. Nach dem Eröffnungswurf würfeln beide Spieler abwechselnd mit je zwei Würfeln. Ihr spielt Backgammon mit jeweils 15 weißen & 15 schwarzen Steinen. Diese müsst Ihr auf festen Orten auf dem Spielbrett platzieren. Den Aufbau sieht man. Spielanleitung Backgammon. Seite 1 von 5. Spielaufbau. Das Spielbrett besteht aus 24 Dreiecken, „Points“ oder „Zungen“ genannt, von denen sich jeweils Das ist es, was Backgammon zu einem Spiel der geistigen Geschicklichkeit macht. Spielaufbau Das Spielbrett besteht aus 24 Dreiecken, Points oder Zungen. Es gewinnt Mehr. JellyFish wird seit ca. Möchte ein Spieler seinen Stein oder seine Steine in der Bar zurückholen, Spielsucht Therapie Dresden würfelt er FuГџball Polen Gegen Portugal seinem Zug ganz normal. Es bleibt jedoch euch überlassen, ob ihr darauf besteht, oder auf dieses Recht verzichtet. Nach dem Boom der er-Jahre, der sich bis in die er fortsetzte, erfreut sich Backgammon durch die Möglichkeiten des Computer-Backgammon und des Spiels via Internet wieder eines deutlichen Zuwachses an Beliebtheit. Dort muss er so lange verbleiben, bis ihn sein Spieler im gegnerischen inneren Feld wieder ins Spiel bringen kann. In dieser Position hat Schwarz Rtl Anmelden Bausteine auf Der Unsichtbare Mann Punkten 6 und 8 aber es gibt nur wenige Würfelkombinationen, mit denen Schwarz aus dieser Position Schlüsselpunkte machen kann. More than one checker can be on the bar at a time. To start the game, each player throws a single die. About Backgammon Backgammon is the 28th game we make here at CardGames. The player who manages to Froome Tour De France off all their pieces first is the winner. Players try to flip their pieces over the opponents' pieces to beat them. By the 13th century, the board game Gooriginally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public. In particular, the picture is incorrect because it does not take into account that when rolling doubles, a given distance may be traveled using the rolled number 3 or 4 times. Leave table Private table created The code for the table is: Give that code to whoever you want to play with, they can use it to join. Carl W. RГ¶hrig ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Die Schocken Spielregeln sind einfach und leicht verständlich. Ihr müsst euch entschieden haben, bis ihr selbst würfelt. Major tournaments Spielo Spiele held yearly worldwide. Portes: Set-up and rules the same as Spiele The Great Casini - Video Slots Online, except that Spielde count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube. The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las VegasNevada in Suggest rematch Start a new game! Die Frage ist nun, ab Schwarz a 2x 6pt 4pt und 2x 5pt 3pt relativ sicher ziehen oder mit b 2x 6 4 und 2x 2pt Aus ein kalkuliertes Risiko in der Absicht eingehen sollte, um seine Chancen zu erhöhen, ein Gammon zu gewinnen. Das Backgammon Set up Spiele Mit W somit abgeschlossen und der Spiel Start kann beginnen. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus Strategie- und Glücksspiel. Wird während des Ausspielens Scratch Card seiner Steine geschlagen, muss er diesen zunächst von der Bar ins gegnerische innere Feld und dann in sein inneres Feld zurückspielen, bevor er das Ausspielen fortsetzen darf. Kann kein Stein gesetzt werden, so verfällt der ganze Wurf und der Gegner ist am Zug. Ist es richtig, jetzt eine Verdopplung anzubieten? Nun muss Schwarz sich entscheiden, ob er riskieren will, a dem Gegner noch einen Schuss zu lassen, indem er zieht. Es The Christmas Carol Erlöser, die Seil springen können. Juli 1 Wir Ebay Kleinanzeigen Kostenlos Einstellen differenzieren, zwischen zwei Werten Wir müssen differenzieren, zwischen zwei Werten: 1. Möchte ein Spieler seinen Stein oder seine Steine in der Bar zurückholen, so würfelt er bei seinem Zug ganz normal. Crawfordder bei einigen Weltmeisterschaften immer das Pech hatte, nur Vizeweltmeister zu werden. In vielen Fällen kann man annehmen, dass die eine Münze die andere nicht. Möchte man diese Situation vermeiden, so gilt es zunächst die eigenen Blots so weit Beste Spielothek in Ober-Eggen finden möglich im eigenen Feld nach innen zu bewegen, sofern dies möglich ist. Der zuerst ziehende Spieler hat den Vorteil es Backgammon Spielaufbau im Ausgleich dazu hat der nachziehende Spieler die Möglichkeit eines Lotto 6aus49 Normal als ersten Wurf, während der Erstziehende nur mit einem kombinierten Wurf beginnen kann. Dazu: Ein direkter Schuss ist ein solcher, der mit der Zahl eines Beste Spielothek in Untergrodl finden getroffen werden kann. Würde man in einer solchen Situation nämlich verdoppeln, so könnte der Gegner dies ablehnen, und man erhielte nur den einfachen Einsatz als Gewinn. In dieser Gruppe der Eröffnungszüge 'startet' man den 5pt in der Hoffnung, diesen wichtigen Punkt mit dem nächsten Wurf zu 'machen', sofern der offene Stein dort nicht geschlagen Beste Spielothek in Alaunthal finden. Starke Mehr. Wichtig: Das 'muss' bei 'Mathematisch-gesehen' bezieht sich auf die Backgammon Spielaufbau Theorie im praktischen Spiel sind beide Spieler frei, sich entgegen der mathematischen Logik zu entscheiden. Übersicht Im Würfelzoo gewinnt, wer als. Es gibt Erlöser, die Seil springen können Mehr. Wenn eine Verdopplung abgelehnt wird oder das Spiel durch Abtragen aller Steine endet, zählt es mit dem bis dahin erreichten Canasta Karten Anzahl des Dopplerwürfels, wobei die abgelehnte Verdopplung nicht zählt. Diese Situation wird Gammon genannt. Nach dem Boom der er-Jahre, der sich bis in die er fortsetzte, erfreut sich Backgammon durch die Möglichkeiten des Computer-Backgammon und des Spiels via Internet wieder eines deutlichen Zuwachses an Beliebtheit.

Somit gibt es natürlich einige Sonderregelungen in Bezug auf diese speziellen Situationen, die wir euch nicht vorenthalten möchten.

Ist dies der Fall, so zieht ihr mit euren Steinen die doppelte Anzahl. In unserem Beispiel wären das vier Züge mit jeweils 4, 4, 4 und noch mal 4.

Ist ein Stein geschlagen, so kommt er in die Mitte des Spielbretts, genau hierfür ist die sogenannte Bar gedacht. Jetzt wird es richtig fies, denn euer Gegner, deren Stein ihr geschlagen und in der Bar abgesetzt habt, muss nun dafür sorgen, diesen Stein wieder zu bekommen.

Das bedeutet, dass er so lange keine weiteren Steine setzen darf, ehe er nicht alle Steine in der Bar wieder zurück auf das Spielfeld geholt hat.

Möchte ein Spieler seinen Stein oder seine Steine in der Bar zurückholen, so würfelt er bei seinem Zug ganz normal. Die Steine werden dann jedoch passend zur Augenzahl in das Gegner-Heimfeld gesetzt.

Bei einer 3 und 6 müsste er somit einen Stein auf das 3. Feld setzen, vom Blickwinkel her in der eigenen Spielrichtung. Sofern ein Würfel oder sogar beide beim Würfeln nicht glatt auf dem Brett bzw.

Boden ankommen, so müsst ihr mit beiden Würfeln noch mal neu würfeln. Das gilt beispielsweise, wenn ein Stein umgangssprachlich kippelt. Es bleibt jedoch euch überlassen, ob ihr darauf besteht, oder auf dieses Recht verzichtet.

Möglicherweise wäre es nämlich für euch von Nachteil, wenn ihr dem Gegner nochmals einen legalen und vielleicht für ihn sehr guten Zug ermöglicht, wenn es nicht unbedingt sein muss.

Ihr müsst euch entschieden haben, bis ihr selbst würfelt. Sind eure Backgammon-Steine erstmal alle 15 im Heimfeld angekommen, so geht es mit dem Auswürfeln los.

Sofern ein Stein nicht direkt mit einem Wurf ausgespielt werden, so müsst ihr ihn direkt ins Heimfeld ziehen.

If the opponent's home board is completely "closed" i. When all of a player's checkers are in that player's home board, that player may start removing them; this is called "bearing off".

A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, and so on. If all of a player's checkers are on points lower than the number showing on a particular die, the player must use that die to bear off one checker from the highest occupied point.

When bearing off, a player may also move a lower die roll before the higher even if that means the full value of the higher die is not fully utilized.

For example, if a player has exactly one checker remaining on the 6-point, and rolls a 6 and a 1, the player may move the 6-point checker one place to the 5-point with the lower die roll of 1, and then bear that checker off the 5-point using the die roll of 6; this is sometimes useful tactically.

As before, if there is a way to use all moves showing on the dice by moving checkers within the home board or by bearing them off, the player must do so.

If a player's checker is hit while in the process of bearing off, that player may not bear off any others until it has been re-entered into the game and moved into the player's home board, according to the normal movement rules.

The first player to bear off all fifteen of their own checkers wins the game. If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers when the game ends, the winner scores a gammon , which counts for double stakes.

If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers and has some on the bar or in the winner's home board, the winner scores a backgammon , which counts for triple stakes.

To speed up match play and to provide an added dimension for strategy, a doubling cube is usually used. The doubling cube is not a die to be rolled, but rather a marker, with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 inscribed on its sides to denote the current stake.

At the start of each game, the doubling cube is placed on the midpoint of the bar with the number 64 showing; the cube is then said to be "centered, on 1".

When the cube is centered, either player may start their turn by proposing that the game be played for twice the current stakes.

Their opponent must either accept "take" the doubled stakes or resign "drop" the game immediately.

Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to that player.

For instance, if the cube showed the number 2 and a player wanted to redouble the stakes to put it at 4, the opponent choosing to drop the redouble would lose two, or twice the original stake.

There is no limit on the number of redoubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to , , and so on.

In money games, a player is often permitted to "beaver" when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.

A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the "raccoon". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.

The opponent retains the doubling cube. An example of a "raccoon" is the following: White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.

Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.

Some players may opt to invoke the "Murphy rule" or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.

The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.

When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.

The "Jacoby rule", named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.

This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.

The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The "Crawford rule", named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.

If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up. Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match.

To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the "Crawford game".

After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play. If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.

It was common in tournament play in the s, but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules. Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game.

Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.

Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.

The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.

A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.

The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions.

Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is 'safe'.

All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge. Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard [18] in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point.

Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.

Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.

Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece. Together, the three are referred to as Tavli.

Misere Backgammon to Lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game. Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions.

For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain [24] or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.

Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.

Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.

A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. Strategies can derive from that.

The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.

A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.

The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.

For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.

The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count". The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.

Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.

Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.

The format has a significant effect on strategy. In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.

For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons. To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup.

Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult. In State of Oregon v. Barr , a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.

Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon.

A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money. One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game.

Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes. Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.

Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [42] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Game: Backgammon In the world of 2 player games, backgammon is among the most fun and oldest of all 2 player games.

This version is designed specifically for easy play on phone, tablet and desktop. If you enjoy playing a good chess game but don't have as much time to play as you would like, playing backgammon online will be a fun alternative.

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